Amending the Constitution of the United States

Yes there have been and are mistakes in both the Constitution and the amendments.  Many corrections have been made in the amendments.  However, some remain and should be fixed.  Unfortunately, they are so entwined in the culture and current law that we may not be able to undo them. 

At the end of this article is "The Constitution of the New United States" that was taken from the book "The Day the Wind Stopped Blowing", that can be found at http://www.felixlovesliz.com/Products.php. Even though it is based on the current constitution, it seeks to correct some of the problems that have permitted out government to devolve into what we have now because our politicians have taken advantage of our constitutions weaknesses.

Balanced Budget Amendment

In order to restrain the excessive spending of the Federal Government, an amendment is needed.  Where any law passed by congress may not commit  the next congress to abide by it, the mechanism to pass a constitutional amendment makes it more permanent.  The following amendment would supply such restraint but still allow the government to borrow money.

Section 1. The Administration may not request and the Federal Reserve may not print or mint currency except to replace that which has been returned to be destroyed. In no case shall the amount of currency, whether in certificates. electronic or paper, or coin,  in circulation exceed current levels.

Section 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States both Houses must approve by two thirds. Additionally, the amount of money to be borrowed must not cause the total debt to exceed 49% of the average of the gross national product for the previous 6 years. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively.

Section 3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within three years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

A more comprehensive but weaker proposal is currently before the congress.  Its weakness lies in the fact that the Fed is allowed to adjust the value of money, and essentially paying down our debt with fiat money.  Also note that it does not take effect until after 2016 when the current administration is out of office.  If we last that long, it will be a good thing.

Sixteenth Amendment

This amendment has imposed the greatest injustice on the United States and may eventually completely destroy our republic.  Our founders looked very carefully at how our original government should fund itself and set out the principles in the Constitution in Section 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general welfare Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;


This approach is well discussed in the Federalist Papers and if you would like to know more I recommend the you look there.  The 16th Amendment has been and is now used as a basis of class warfare by political parties and administrations.  Now you will recognize it as "Tax the Fat Cats", "Have the rich pay their fair share" and like campaigns. 

The sixteenth amendment reads as follows.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


This amendment should be repealed by another amendment the text of which follows.

Section 1. The sixteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within two years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

The Commerce Clause

Section 8, paragraph 3 reads

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes

And has been used by the Federal Government to interfere with people's rights and the authority of the States more than the founders intended.  That section should be modified to read:

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; but neither this, nor any other clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.

Term Limits

This proposal, S.J. Res. 11 has been introduced to both the Senate and House of Representatives.  It currently is in committee but without an outcry from the voters, it is unlikely to go anywhere. 


Remuneration

It is unlikely that our founders expected the administration, and the congress to make careers of service as elected officials. Therefore an amendment is needed to limit to remuneration of those elected officials.  It definitely did not intentionally establish a class of "governors"  that could control their own wages and benefits.

Section 1. Total Remuneration of elected officials serving in the Congress and the Administration per year shall not exceed the average income of citizens' families multiplied by five and reduced by their share of the national debt divided by their term in office. (this remuneration shall include the cost of staff, travel, retirement, and medical insurance)

Section 2.  No Remuneration of elected officials shall be made before or after their term in office.
 

Birthright

The 14th Amendment bestows citizenship on any person born in the United States. Note that the Republicans passed this objection over the objections of the southern possessions previously known as the Confederate States of America. They then passed legislation that required these possesions to accept this Amendment before they could participate in the government. Where the Amendment established a number of principals, it opened the door to what is called anchor babies, that is, a mother coming to the U.S. to have a child so that child would be entitled to the benefits of U.S. citizenship. This situation can be corrected by deleting the words "born or" in the first sentence.

The following Constitution is contained in the book, "The Day the Wind Stopped Blowing" available as a Kindle Book. Included also is an explanation of the events leading up to its adoption and explanations of the differences. Check at http://www.felixlovesliz.com for links to this and other books. NewConstitution.odt

The Constitution of New United States

The following constitution, taken from the original Constitution of the United States shall be used as the framework under which the New Ohio Constitution and Laws shall operate. Changes have been made and noted, text has been to correct problems that were originally in the constitution or that worked into the constitution during the U.S. History prior to 2040. The text and reorganization of the constitution was taken from the Constitution of the Confederate States of America because many of the weaknesses of the original Constitution were recognized and corrected there.

Preamble

We, the people of the New United States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God do ordain and establish this Constitution for the New United States of America.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit and ownership of Property. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

Article I

Sec. 1. All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Congress of the New United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives

  1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each State shall be citizens of the New United States, and have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature; but no person of foreign birth, not a citizen of the New United States, shall be allowed to vote for any officer, civil or political, State or Federal.
  2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and be a citizen of the New United States, and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
  3. No person shall be a Representative who shall have served in either the Senate or House of Representatives for an aggregate of more than 12 years.
  4. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States, which may be included within this New United States, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the New United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every fifty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made.
  5. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
  6. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment; except that any judicial or other Federal officer, resident and acting solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached by a vote of two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature thereof.

Sec. 3. The Senate

  1. The Senate of the New United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen for six years by the Legislature thereof, at the regular session next immediately preceding the commencement of the term of service; and each Senator shall have one vote.
  2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or other wise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
  3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and be a citizen of the New United States; and who shall not, then elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which he shall be chosen.
  4. No person shall be a Senator who shall have served in either the Senate or House of Representatives for an aggregate of more than 12 years.
  5. The Vice President of the New United States shall be president of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
  6. The Senate shall choose their other officers; and also a president pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the New United states.
  7. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the New United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
  8. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the New United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.

Sec. 4.

  1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, subject to the provisions of this Constitution; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the times and places of choosing Senators.
  2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in Fegruary, unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day.

Sec. 5.

  1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
  2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the whole number, expel a member.
  3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy,but in no case exceeding 2 years from the time of an action; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question be entered on the journal.
  4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Sec. 6.

  1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the New United States.
  2. No Remuneration of elected officials shall be made before or after their term in office.
  3. Total Remuneration of elected officials serving in the Congress and the Administration per year shall not exceed the average income of citizens' families multiplied by five and reduced by their share of the national debt divided by their term in office. (this remuneration may be used to pay salary, the cost of staff, travel, retirement, and medical insurance)
  4. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
  5. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the New United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time.
  6. No person holding any office under the New United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. But Congress may, by law, grant to the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments a seat upon the floor of either House, with the privilege of discussing any measures appertaining to his department.

Sec. 7.

  1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.
  2. All bills for which there is 10% or more of the House members request to be presented to the full House may not be held up by any member or group of members of that house and that house must take a vote on acceptance, rejection, or tabling of the bill. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively.
  3. Every bill which shall have passed both Houses, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the New United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law. The President may approve any appropriation and disapprove any other appropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing the bill, designate the appropriations disapproved; and shall return a copy of such appropriations, with his objections, to the House in which the bill shall have originated; and the same proceedings shall then be had as in case of other bills disapproved by the President.
  4. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the New United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be passed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power-

  1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the business the Government of the New United States; but no bounties shall be granted from the Treasury; nor shall any duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the New United States.
  2. To borrow money on the credit of the New United States.
  3. The Administration may not request and the Federal Reserve may not print or mint currency except to replace that which has been returned to be destroyed. In no case shall the amount of currency, whether in certificates. electronic or paper, or coin,  in circulation exceed current levels.
  4. To borrow money on the credit of the United States both Houses must approve by two thirds. Additionally, the amount of money to be borrowed must not cause the total debt to exceed 49% of the average of the gross national product for the previous 6 years. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively.
  5. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; but neither this, nor any other clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.
  6. To establish uniform laws of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the New United States; but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt contracted before the passage of the same.
  7. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures. The dollar shall be the basic unit of exchange and shall fixed to be worth the number of square meters within the state divided by the gross domestic product, measured in dollars, of the state in 2000. (in Ohio, this would fix the dollar so that each square meter would cost $5.)
  8. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the New United States.
  9. To establish post offices and post routes; but the expenses of the Post Office Department, after the 4th day of July in the year of our Lord two thousand and forty, shall be paid out of its own revenues. No law of Congress shall interfere with an individual or institutions right to provide services provided by such post offices.
  10. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.
  11. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
  12. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations.
  13. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water.
  14. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
  15. To provide and maintain a navy.
  16. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.
  17. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the New United States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
  18. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the New United States; reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.
  19. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of one or more States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the New United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the . erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; and
  20. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the New United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Sec. 9

  1. Before a senator or representative enters on the execution of his/her office he/she shall take the following oath or affirmation:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of Senator (or Representative) of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the New United States, so help me God

Sec. 10.

  1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
  2. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
  3. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
  4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein-before directed to be taken.
  5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State, except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses.
  6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another.
  7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
  8. Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by some one of the heads of departments and submitted to Congress by the President; or for the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies; or for the payment of claims against the New United States, the justice of which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby made the duty of Congress to establish.
  9. All bills appropriating money shall specify in Federal currency the exact amount of each appropriation and the purposes for which it is made; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered.
  10. No title of nobility shall be granted by the New United States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
  11. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  12. The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
  13. The right of the people to work in their chosen profession shall not be infringed either by this government, a member states government, or professional organization.
  14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, property, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
  16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
  17. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
  18. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the New United States, than according to the rules of common law.
  19. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted nor shall any tax be laid on any article of property that when accumulated over time exceeds the original price paid for the property.
  20. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  21. Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.
  22. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Sec. 11.

  1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.
  2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports, or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the New United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress.
  1. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage, except on vessels carrying persons or freight, for the improvement of its rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels; but such duties shall not conflict with any treaties of the New United States with foreign nations; and any surplus revenue thus derived shall, after making such improvement, be paid into the common treasury. Nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. But when any river divides or flows through two or more States they may enter into compacts with each other to improve the navigation thereof.

ARTICLE II

Section I.

  1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the New United States of America. He and the Vice President shall hold their offices for the term of six years; but the President shall not be re-eligible. The President and Vice President shall be elected as follows:
  2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the New United States shall be appointed an elector.
  3. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of. the New United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall,in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 4th day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in case of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President.
  4. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
  5. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the New United States.
  6. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the New United States.
  7. No person except a natural-born citizen of the New United; States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 20th of December, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the New United States, as they may exist at the time of his election.
  8. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
  9. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
  10. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
  11. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President protem of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
  12. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro-temp of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
  13. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the New United States, or any of them. The President shall not receive remuneration for any expenses either before or after his term(s) in office.
  14. Before he enters on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the New United States, so help me God.

Sec. 2.

  1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the New United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the New United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the New United States, except in cases of impeachment.
  2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make agreements and treaties with foreign governments; provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the New United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
  3. The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, and all persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from office at the pleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the Executive Departments may be removed at any time by the President, or other appointing power, when their services are unnecessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity. inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty; and when so removed, the removal shall be reported to the Senate, together with the reasons therefor.
  4. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end when the Senate returns; but no person rejected by the Senate shall be reappointed to the same office during their ensuing recess.
  5. No treaty or agreement made by the president with the advise and consent of the senate be made for a period of more than 7 years. At the end of 7 years the treaty shall become invalid unless renegotiated with the foreign government.
  6. Each treaty or agreement shall be reviewed after 2 years by the House of Representatives to determine if there have been undesirable consequences resulting from the operation of the treaty or agreement. If so, the House of Representatives with the Senate shall have the power to revoke the treaty or agreement.
  7. No treaty or agreement with a foreign government may be made that restricts the certain unalienable Rights of the citizens of the New United States of America.

Sec. 3.

The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the New United States, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them; and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the New United States.

Sec. 4.

The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the New United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III

Section I.

  1. The judicial power of the New United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
  2. No judge may serve more than 17 years.
  3. No judge shall receive remunerations for said services prior or subsequent to his term of service as a Supreme Court Judge.
  4. Each Justice except those having experience as an attorney will be supplied with an attorney on staff for consultation.
  5. The Supreme Court shall be constituted as follows:
  1. Chief Justice having  been a practitioner of law for 7 years,
  2. Three Justices each having been an officer in a corporation for no less than 5 years,
  3. One Justice having been a farmer or employed as a farm laborer,
  4. One Justice having been from the arts (painting, music, writing, and the like),
  5. One Justice having been an Attorney for more that 5 years,
  6. One Justice having been an industrial laborer.
  7. One Justice having served in a church or faith based charity.

Sec. 2.

  1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under this Constitution, the laws of the New United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the New United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State, where the State is plaintiff; between citizens claiming lands under grants of different States; and between a State or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects; but no State shall be sued by a citizen or subject of any foreign state.
  2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
  3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
  4. The Supreme Court shall review all rulings made with respect to interpretation of the Constitution according to the following schedule.
  1. Rulings made where only five judges concur with the ruling: Every seven years,
  1. Rulings made where only six judges concur with the ruling: Every eleven years,
  2. Rulings made where only seven judges concur with the ruling: Every fifteen years,
  3. All remaining rulings: Every nineteen years.
  4. In all cases where the Congress with a three-fourths majority petitions the court to conduct such a review.

Sec. 3.

  1. Treason against the New United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
  1. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV

Section I.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State; and the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Sec. 2.

  1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this New United States, with their property; and the right of property shall not be thereby impaired.
  2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime against the laws of such State, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
  3. No person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the New United States, under the laws thereof, escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Sec. 3.

  1. Other States may be admitted into this New United States by a vote of two-thirds of the whole House of Representatives and two-thirds of the Senate, the Senate voting by States; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.
  2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations concerning the property of the New United States, including the lands thereof.
  3. The New United States may acquire new territory; and Congress shall have power to legislate and provide governments for the inhabitants of all territory belonging to the New United States, lying without the limits of the several Sates; and may permit them, at such times, and in such manner as it may by law provide, to form States to be admitted into the New United States.
  1. The New United States shall guarantee to every State that now is, or hereafter may become, a member of this New United States, a republican form of government; and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the Legislature or of the Executive when the Legislature is not in session) against domestic violence.

ARTICLE V

Section I.

Upon the demand of any three States, legally assembled in their several conventions, the Congress shall summon a convention of all the States, to take into consideration such amendments to the Constitution as the said States shall concur in suggesting at the time when the said demand is made; and should any of the proposed amendments to the Constitution be agreed on by the said convention, voting by States, and the same be ratified by the Legislatures of two- thirds of the several States, or by conventions in two-thirds thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the general convention, they shall thenceforward form a part of this Constitution. But no State shall, without its consent, be deprived of its equal representation in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI

  1. The Government established by this Constitution is the successor of the Government of the United States of America Government, and all the laws passed by the latter shall continue in force until the same shall be repealed or modified but in no case shall they continue if in direct conflict with the provisions of this Constitution; and all the officers appointed by the same shall remain in office until their successors are appointed and qualified, or the offices abolished.
  2. No debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the New United States under this Constitution.
  3. This Constitution, and the laws of the New United States made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the New United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
  4. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the New United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the New United States.
  5. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people of the several States.
  1. The powers not delegated to the New United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people thereof.

ARTICLE VII

On becoming a citizen of the New United States of America a person shall take the following oath or affirmation:

I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion.

ARTICLE VIII

  1. The ratification of the convention of Ohio shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution.